Pediatric Pulmonolgy

Wheezing is a sound produced by narrowed airways when breathing. As air passes through these constricted passages, it produces a high-pitched whistling sound. Wheezing can occur either when inhaling or exhaling though the latter is most common. A child who is wheezing is often experiencing difficulty breathing and may need to seek medical attention. If your…

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The vocal cords are not just for speaking – they actually play an important role in breathing too. When a child breathes in air, it first passes through the vocal cords and then into the trachea and lungs. But a child with vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) will have difficulty breathing in due to tightened vocal…

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A tracheostomy is a hole surgically placed in a child’s trachea to make breathing easier when it is otherwise impaired. Pulmonologists may order a tracheostomy with or without the use of a ventilator, depending on the patient’s individual needs. For some, a tracheostomy is only temporary, whereas others may require it as a permanent breathing…

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Recurrent Pneumonia and Respiratory Tract Infections Nearly all children have respiratory infections from time to time, which are some of the most common causes of pediatric doctor and hospital visits. Usually, they are caused by viral infections or bacterial infections. However, some children develop recurrent infections, which may be a sign of an underlying pulmonary…

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ID: 2751

Croup is a viral illness that most commonly occurs in young children. Croup causes the upper airways to become narrow, producing a ‘barking’ cough that typically becomes worse at night. The disease is said to be recurrent if a child develops more than two episodes per year. If a child has recurrent croup, which may…

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Children in high altitudes may develop a condition known as periodic breathing while sleeping. It occurs when a child alternates between deep-breathing and shallow breathing. Often, several deep breaths are taken before the child pauses the breathing pattern, holding his or her breath for several seconds at a time. Often children are unaware of the…

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ID: 2747

Many children experience noisy breathing, a symptom that could indicate one of many underlying conditions. Most are not serious but should still be evaluated by a pulmonologist to ensure appropriate treatment. Noisy breathing can arise from complications with nearly any area of the respiratory pathway. Often, the source of noisy breathing is within the nose…

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ID: 2745

Hypoxemia is a condition in which a child’s blood is low in oxygen. Left untreated, the condition can lead to a more serious condition known as hypoxia, which is low oxygen in the body’s tissues. Both hypoxemia and hypoxia are serious conditions that require medical attention. Without treatment, the body’s major organs can suffer serious…

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ID: 4988

A child with GERD has chronically recurring gastroesophageal reflux. This condition can be serious when diagnosed in childhood – especially for infants. In fact, GERD that persists long-term can lead to significant health complications, including ulcers, esophageal bleeding, difficulty swallowing and trouble breathing. Fortunately, children who get treatment for GERD may be able to find…

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ID: 4987

Dyspnea, or shortness of breath, can be a frightening condition – especially when it happens to a child. There are many reasons why a child may develop difficulty breathing, which may occur acutely or recur chronically. Any child experiencing unexplained shortness of breath needs immediate emergency evaluation. Once stabilized, a pediatric pulmonologist can begin determining…

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Congenital respiratory tract abnormalities are malformations within the upper or lower respiratory tract that were present at birth. Though considered rare, most children with these conditions have a positive prognosis, with many of them going on to lead normal, healthy lives. Unfortunately, these conditions can be quite scary for young children and their parents as respiratory…

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Chronic lung disease is a term broadly used to describe ongoing lung diseases and disorders in children. Though many chronic lung diseases are manageable with ongoing pulmonary treatment, they can still have a harmful effect on a child’s quality of life. Examples of chronic lung diseases that may affect children include asthma, chronic bronchitis and…

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ID: 2733

Imagine your kindergartener comes down with a cough, perhaps accompanied by other cold-like symptoms like fever or congestion. Most of the symptoms resolve on their own, yet the cough persists for weeks on end. Despite the use of cough suppressants and other over-the-counter medications, the cough continues day and night – a condition known as…

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Aspiration occurs when a foreign object, liquid or other material enters a child’s airway below the vocal cords. The body contains natural mechanisms that protect the airways from outside contaminants. When these mechanisms are stressed, such as while eating, talking or laughing, anyone can experience aspiration, though it is usually in small amounts of material…

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A neurodevelopmental disorder is a genetic or acquired disorder that affects the peripheral or central nervous system, such as the brain and spinal cord, with an onset during childhood. These disorders obstruct a child’s nervous system development and in many cases lead to secondary problems, such as respiratory complications. Many neurodevelopmental conditions produce chronic respiratory…

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Central Hypoventilation Syndrome is a rare condition in which a child’s autonomous nervous system fails to regulate involuntary breathing. A child with central hypoventilation syndrome may stop breathing or under-breathe, resulting in slow and shallow breaths. Central hypoventilation is most evident at night when sleeping, though some children experience episodic breathing during the day too.…

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Bronchiolitis is a lung infection common in young children and infants. It most often occurs before age two and peaks in children between ages 3 and 6 months. It is nearly always caused by a virus, such as RSV, the flu, and rhinovirus. When a child has bronchiolitis, the airways become swollen, inflamed and filled…

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ID: 4981

Bronchiectasis is a condition in which mucus accumulation causes respiratory blockage, leading to stretching and enlargement of the airways. This can lead to a bacterial infection and additional mucus build-up and inflammation, which weakens, scars and deforms the airway walls. Over time, the body loses its ability to clear mucus on its own, thus creating…

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Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, or BPD, is a condition in which newborn babies experience difficulty breathing due to scarring of the lungs. Though there are many reasons a baby can develop BPD, it is most commonly caused by lung infections, fluid in the lungs, or the use of a ventilator shortly after birth. Most babies with BPD…

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ID: 2719

Asthma is a common disease among children that causes coughing, wheezing and labored breathing. Asthma attacks can be quite frightening for a child – especially young children who have not yet learned how to cope with these episodes. Unfortunately, the disease often goes undiagnosed for many years, instead being mistaken for other chronic diseases such…

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There are many different types of sleep apnea, including obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and central sleep apnea (CSA). In obstructive sleep apnea, a child struggles to inhale properly because the airway is partially collapsed. In central sleep apnea, a child’s brain fails to send signals to breathe, resulting in short periods of sleep when he…

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